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|Counting Carlisle's Casualties: Defining Student Death at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 1879-1918|
American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4, Fall, 2020, pp. -414.
Using official records from the first and largest off-reservation Indian boarding school in his case study, the author challenges the objectivity of morality rates. Factors such as definition of a student or alumni and including ill students that were discharged before their deaths can change the numbers drastically.