Rate this link
|Averting Disaster: The Hudson's Bay Company and Smallpox in Western Canada During the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries|
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2004, pp. 575-609.
Argues that Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) served as a de facto public health agency and by the late 1830s provided an effective vaccination campaign covering most of western Canada.